Inserting references and bibliography are explained in this tutorial. The bibliography is inserted in two different methods in Latex. The two methods are:

  • Embedded
  • Bibtex

Embedded bibliography

In this type of bibliography, you will write the bibliography in the same file below the text. The following example shows how to insert a bibliography.


\section{Insert Bibliography}
This tutorial explains the method of inserting bibliography \cite{label_1}. This is the example of \cite{label_2} embedded bibliography. The bibliography is inserted below the text \cite{lable_3}.

Ismail and Ariffin. Analyzing the performance of networks. In Analytical Modelling Simulation (AMS), International Conference(pp. 550-555). IEEE.

Stojanovic. Relationship between capacity and distance. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 11(4), pp.34-43.

El-Daryml. Linear wireless sensor network. In 2010 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (pp. 106-112). IEEE.



The output PDF file is shown below

Bibliography in Latex example

The \begin{thebibliography}{99} and \end{thebibliography} produces a list of references you entered between these two commands. In other words, the list of references is inserted after the \begin{thebibliography}{99}. The {99} is used for listing the references. Without this, the Latex file will not be executed and will show an error. Further, the list of references is started with the \bibitem{lable_1}. After this command, you enter the details such author names, book, article, publisher, year, etc. The text after \bibitem inside braces is just a label. You can give any label as feel comparable. The text is then cited by using \cite{lable_1}.

Bibtex method for referencing

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